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Tenapanor (Xphozah)

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Why is this medication prescribed?

Tenapanor (brand name Xphozah) is a medication prescribed primarily for the treatment of adults with irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) or chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). It works by blocking the NHE3 transporter in the gastrointestinal tract, which reduces the absorption of sodium and increases the secretion of chloride. This mechanism helps to increase water in the intestines, soften stool, and facilitate bowel movements, thereby alleviating constipation.

How should this medicine be used?

Here’s how Tenapanor (Xphozah) is typically used:

  • Dosage: The usual dosage of Tenapanor is 50 mg orally twice daily with food.
  • Administration: The medication should be taken with food to maximize its effectiveness and minimize the risk of gastrointestinal side effects.
  • Swallowing: Tenapanor tablets should be swallowed whole with water and should not be chewed, crushed, or broken.
  • Regular use: It’s important to take Tenapanor regularly as prescribed by your healthcare provider to experience its full therapeutic benefits.
  • Follow-up: Your healthcare provider may adjust the dosage of Tenapanor based on your response to treatment and any side effects experienced.
  • Adherence: It’s essential to adhere to your prescribed dosage regimen and not to skip doses unless instructed by your healthcare provider.
  • Monitoring: Your healthcare provider may monitor your condition periodically to assess the effectiveness of Tenapanor and to check for any adverse reactions.
  • Other treatments: Tenapanor may be used alone or in combination with other treatments for IBS-C or CIC, depending on the individual patient’s needs and treatment plan.

As with any medication, it’s important to discuss any questions or concerns you may have about Tenapanor with your healthcare provider before starting treatment. They can provide personalized guidance based on your medical history and current health status.

Other uses for this medicine

Tenapanor (Xphozah) is primarily indicated for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with constipation (IBS-C) and chronic idiopathic constipation (CIC). However, it’s essential to note that medications may sometimes be prescribed off-label for conditions beyond their FDA-approved uses. Currently, there are no widely recognized off-label uses for Tenapanor, but research may explore its potential applications in other gastrointestinal conditions or disorders involving sodium and water transport.

What special precautions should I follow?

Regarding special precautions for Tenapanor (Xphozah), it’s crucial to follow these guidelines:

  • Medical History: Before starting Tenapanor, inform your healthcare provider about your medical history, especially if you have a history of gastrointestinal disorders, electrolyte imbalances, kidney problems, or any other relevant medical conditions.
  • Pregnancy and Breastfeeding: Inform your healthcare provider if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or breastfeeding. The safety of Tenapanor during pregnancy and lactation has not been established, so your healthcare provider will weigh the potential benefits against the risks before prescribing it in these situations.
  • Drug Interactions: Inform your healthcare provider about all the medications, supplements, and herbal products you are currently taking, as Tenapanor may interact with certain drugs. It’s particularly important to mention any medications that affect electrolyte balance or gastrointestinal motility.
  • Hydration: Ensure adequate hydration while taking Tenapanor, as increased water intake can help prevent dehydration, especially in individuals prone to dehydration or those with kidney problems.
  • Electrolyte Monitoring: Your healthcare provider may monitor your electrolyte levels periodically, especially sodium, potassium, magnesium, and phosphorus, particularly if you have a history of electrolyte imbalances or if you are taking medications that can affect electrolyte levels.
  • Adverse Reactions: Be aware of potential adverse reactions associated with Tenapanor, such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, nausea, vomiting, headache, dizziness, and dehydration. Contact your healthcare provider if you experience severe or persistent side effects.
  • Dietary Considerations: Maintain a balanced diet while taking Tenapanor, and avoid excessive consumption of foods high in sodium or potassium unless otherwise instructed by your healthcare provider.
  • Follow-up: Attend regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider to monitor your response to treatment, adjust the dosage if necessary, and address any concerns or questions you may have.

Always adhere to your healthcare provider’s instructions and recommendations regarding the use of Tenapanor to ensure safe and effective treatment. If you have any questions or concerns, don’t hesitate to discuss them with your healthcare provider.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Regarding special dietary instructions for Tenapanor:

  • Sodium Intake: Be cautious with excessive consumption of sodium-rich foods, as Tenapanor reduces sodium absorption in the gastrointestinal tract. Follow dietary recommendations provided by your healthcare provider or dietitian.
  • Potassium Intake: Similarly, be mindful of potassium intake, as Tenapanor may affect potassium levels in the body. Maintain a balanced diet and avoid excessive consumption of potassium-rich foods unless otherwise instructed by your healthcare provider.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

If you miss a dose of Tenapanor, take it as soon as you remember. However, if it is almost time for your next scheduled dose, skip the missed dose and continue with your regular dosing schedule. Do not take a double dose to make up for a missed one. If you have questions or concerns about missed doses, consult your healthcare provider for guidance.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Tenapanor (Xphozah) can potentially cause side effects, although not everyone will experience them. Common side effects reported with Tenapanor include:

  • Diarrhea: This is the most commonly reported side effect of Tenapanor. It can range from mild to severe and may lead to dehydration if not managed properly.
  • Abdominal pain or discomfort: Some individuals may experience abdominal discomfort, cramping, or pain while taking Tenapanor.
  • Flatulence (gas): Increased gas production or bloating may occur as a side effect of Tenapanor.
  • Nausea and vomiting: Some individuals may experience nausea or vomiting while taking Tenapanor.
  • Headache: Headaches are reported by some individuals as a side effect of Tenapanor.
  • Dizziness: Dizziness or lightheadedness may occur in some individuals, particularly when standing up quickly.
  • Dehydration: In rare cases, severe diarrhea caused by Tenapanor may lead to dehydration. It’s essential to maintain adequate hydration while taking this medication.
  • Electrolyte imbalance: Tenapanor may affect electrolyte levels in the body, leading to imbalances such as low sodium levels (hyponatremia), low potassium levels (hypokalemia), or other electrolyte disturbances.
  • Hypotension: Some individuals may experience low blood pressure (hypotension) as a side effect of Tenapanor.
  • Fatigue: Fatigue or tiredness may occur in some individuals taking Tenapanor.

It’s important to note that these side effects can vary in severity and may not occur in everyone. If you experience any persistent or severe side effects while taking Tenapanor, it’s essential to contact your healthcare provider for further evaluation and guidance. Additionally, if you have any concerns about the side effects of Tenapanor, discuss them with your healthcare provider before starting treatment.

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Storage and disposal of Tenapanor (Ibsrela):


  • Store Tenapanor tablets at room temperature between 68°F to 77°F (20°C to 25°C).
  • Keep the medication in its original container, tightly closed, and away from moisture and heat.
  • Do not store Tenapanor in the bathroom or kitchen, where moisture and humidity levels can fluctuate.
  • Keep Tenapanor out of reach of children and pets to prevent accidental ingestion.


  • Dispose of any unused or expired Tenapanor tablets according to local regulations or guidelines.
  • Do not flush unused medications down the toilet or pour them down the drain unless instructed to do so by your healthcare provider or pharmacist.
  • Consult your pharmacist or local waste disposal facility for proper disposal methods, such as using a medication take-back program or community drug disposal program.

In case of emergency/overdose

If you suspect an overdose or experience severe symptoms after taking Tenapanor, seek emergency medical attention or contact your local poison control center immediately. Symptoms of overdose may include severe diarrhea, dehydration, electrolyte imbalances, or other severe adverse reactions. Be prepared to provide information about the medication taken, dosage, and any symptoms experienced.

What other information should I know?

  • Follow your healthcare provider’s instructions carefully regarding the dosage, administration, and duration of Tenapanor treatment.
  • Attend regular follow-up appointments with your healthcare provider to monitor your response to treatment and address any concerns or questions.
  • Inform your healthcare provider about all medications, supplements, and herbal products you are currently taking to avoid potential drug interactions.
  • Report any new or worsening symptoms, side effects, or changes in your health status to your healthcare provider promptly.
  • Do not share Tenapanor with others, even if they have similar symptoms or conditions, as it may not be appropriate for their situation.
  • If you have any questions or concerns about Tenapanor or its use, consult your healthcare provider or pharmacist for further information and guidance.
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