The risk of severe side effects from oral contraceptives, such as heart attacks, blood clots, and strokes, is increased by smoking. Women over 35 who smoke heavily are at an increased risk (15 or more cigarettes per day). Avoid smoking if you use oral contraceptives.
Why is this medication prescribed?
Pregnancy can be avoided by using oral contraceptives, sometimes known as birth control tablets. Two female sex hormones are oestrogen and progestin. In order to prevent ovulation, oestrogen and progestin combinations are effective (the release of eggs from the ovaries). Additionally, they alter the uterine lining (womb) to stop pregnancy from occurring as well as the mucus at the cervix (uterine opening) to stop sperm (male reproductive cells) from entering. Although they are a fairly efficient means of birth control, oral contraceptives are unable to stop the transmission of the HIV virus, which is the cause of AIDS, and other sexually transmitted diseases.
In some people, specific brands of oral contraceptives are also used to treat acne. By reducing the levels of specific natural chemicals that can exacerbate acne, oral contraceptives treat acne.
Some oral contraceptives (Beyaz, Yaz) are also used to treat the physical and mental symptoms of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), which affects women who have opted to use an oral contraceptive to avoid conception.
How should this medicine be used?
Oral contraceptives are available in packages of 21, 28, or 91 tablets that need to be swallowed once day, daily, or nearly daily during a regular cycle. Take oral contraceptives with meals or milk to prevent nausea. Every day, take your oral contraceptive at the same time. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any instructions on your prescription label that you are unsure about following. Follow the directions on your oral contraceptive exactly. Never take it in larger or less amounts, more frequently, or for a longer period of time than your doctor has instructed.
Oral contraceptives are available under numerous brand names. Oral contraceptives come in a variety of brands, each of which has slightly different ingredients or dosages, slightly different instructions for use, and slightly different dangers and advantages. Make sure you are aware of the brand and precise instructions for the oral contraceptive you are using. Request a copy of the manufacturer’s information for the patient from your doctor or pharmacist and carefully study it.
If you have a packet of 21 tablets, take 1 tablet every day for 21 days before stopping for 7 days. then launch a fresh packet.
If your package contains 28, take 1 pill each day for 28 days straight in the order listed on your packet. The day after you take your 28th tablet, begin a new package. Most 28-tablet packs may contain tablets of various colours. Numerous 28-tablet packs have a mix of color-coded tablets with varying concentrations of oestrogen and progesterone, as well as additional color-coded tablets that may be inactive or contain a folate supplement.
Take 1 pill each day for 91 days if the package contains 91 tablets. There are three trays of pills in your packet. Once you have taken all of the tablets on all of the trays, begin with the first tablet on the first tray and continue taking 1 tablet per day in the sequence listed on the packet. Tablets from the previous batch are a different colour. Either an inert component or a very little amount of oestrogen could be present in these tablets. The day following the 91st tablet, begin your new packet.
When you should begin using your oral contraceptive, your doctor will instruct you. Typically, oral contraceptives are started on the first or fifth day of your period, the first Sunday following it starts, or the day when bleeding starts. During the first 7 to 9 days that you take your oral contraceptive, your doctor will also advise you on whether you need to use another method of birth control and will assist you in making a decision. Pay close attention to these guidelines.
During the week that you are not using your oral contraceptive or while taking the inactive or low dose oestrogen tablets, you may suffer withdrawal bleeding that resembles a menstrual period. You won’t encounter any planned bleeding if you are taking a packet that solely contains active tablets, but you could experience unanticipated bleeding and spotting, especially at the start of your therapy. Even if you are still bleeding, make sure to begin taking your next packet on time.
If you vomit or have diarrhoea while taking an oral contraceptive, you might need to use a backup birth control method. Before starting your oral contraceptive, discuss this with your doctor so that you can get ready with a backup birth control option just in case. Call your doctor to ask how long to use the backup method if you have nausea or diarrhoea while using an oral contraceptive.
If you just had a baby, wait four weeks after giving birth before starting oral contraceptives. Consult your doctor about the best time to start using oral contraceptives if you’ve experienced an abortion or miscarriage.
Only when oral contraceptives are taken consistently will they be effective. Even if you are bleeding, experiencing stomach aches, or don’t believe you are likely to become pregnant, keep taking your oral contraceptives every day. Without consulting your doctor, do not stop using oral contraceptives.
Other uses for this medicine
Additionally, endometriosis and heavy or irregular menstruation are sometimes treated with oral contraceptives (a condition in which the type of tissue that lines the uterus [womb] grows in other areas of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). The dangers of using this drug for your illness should be discussed with your doctor.
Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details if you believe this drug should be used for something else.
What special precautions should I follow?
Before taking oral contraceptives,
- If you have an allergy to oestrogen, progestin, or any other drugs, let your doctor and pharmacist know right away.
- Inform your physician and pharmacist about all prescription and over-the-counter drugs, vitamins, and dietary supplements you are using. Incorporate any of the following: acetaminophen (APAP, Tylenol), antibiotics like erythromycin (E.E.S., E-Mycin, Erythrocin), ampicillin (Principen), clarithromycin (Biaxin), and isoniazid (INH, Nydrazid), tetracycline (Sumycin), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane), troleandomycin (TAO) (not available in the United States), metronidazole (Flagyl), minocycline (Dynacin, Minocin), rifabutin (Mycobutin), rifampin (Rifadin, Rimactane),Griseofulvin (Fulvicin, Grifulvin, Grisactin), fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Sporanox), and ketoconazole (Nizoral) are antifungal medications. Other medications include atorvastatin (Lipitor), clofibrate (Atromid-S), cyclosporine (Neoral, Sandimmune), bosentan (Tracleer); fluoxetine (Prozac, Sarafem, in Symbyax), danazol (Danocrine), delavirdine (Rescriptor), diltiazem (Cardizem, Dilacor, Tiazac), and HIV protease inhibitors including indinavir (Crixivan) and ritonavir (Norvir); the anticonvulsants carbamazepine (Tegretol), felbamate (Felbatol), lamotrigine (Lamictal), oxcarbazepine (Trileptal), phenobarbital (Luminal, Solfoton), phenytoin (Dilantin), primidone (Mysoline), and topiramate (Topamax); the stimulants modafinil (Provigil); morphine (Kadian, MS Contin, MSIR, others); theophylline (Theobid, Theo-Dur), temazepam (Restoril), levothyroxine (Levothroid, Levoxyl, Synthroid), oral steroids such as dexamethasone (Decadron, Dexone), methylprednisolone (Medrol), prednisone (Deltasone), and prednisone (Prelone), thyroid medications such as levothyroxine (Le (Accolate). Your doctor might need to adjust your medication doses or keep a close eye out for any negative side effects.
- If you are taking oral contraceptives that contain drosperinone (Beyaz, Gianvi, Loryna, Ocella, Safyral, Syeda, Yasmin, Yaz, and Zarah) tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are taking any of the medications listed above or any of the following: angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin), enalapril (Vasotec), and lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril); angiotensin II antagonists such as irbesartan (Avapro), losartan (Cozaar), and valsartan (Diovan); aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin) and naproxen (Aleve, Naprosyn); diuretics (‘water pills’) such as amiloride (Midamor), spironolactone (Aldactone), and triamterene (Dyrenium); eplerenone (Inspra); heparin; or potassium supplements. Before taking Beyaz or Safyral, also tell your doctor or pharmacist if you are taking cholestyramine (Locholest, Prevalite, Questran), a folate supplement, methotrexate (Trexall), pyrimethamine (Daraprim), sulfasalazine (Azulfidine), or valproic acid (Depakene, Stavzor).
- Please let your doctor know if you are taking any herbal supplements, especially St. John’s wort.
- Inform your doctor if you have thrombophilia (a condition in which the blood clots readily) or if you have ever had blood clots in your legs, lungs, or eyes. coronary artery disease (blocked blood vessels leading to the heart), cerebrovascular disease (blocked or weakening of the blood vessels in or leading to the brain), stroke or mini-stroke, an irregular heartbeat, heart disease, a heart attack, chest pain, diabetes that has harmed your circulation, headaches accompanied by other symptoms like vision changes, weakness, and dizziness; high blood pressure, breast cancer, uterine, cervix, or vaginal lining cancer, liver cancer, liver tumours, or other forms of liver illness; The following conditions can cause yellowing of the skin or eyes: pregnancy, use of hormonal contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, implants, or injections), unexplained abnormal vaginal bleeding, adrenal insufficiency (condition in which the body does not produce enough of certain natural substances needed for critical functions like blood pressure), or kidney disease. If you have just undergone surgery or have been unable to move around for any reason, let your doctor know as well. If you currently have or have ever had any of these illnesses, your doctor may advise you not to use any oral contraceptives or to stop using specific types altogether.
- Additionally, let your doctor know if anyone in your family has experienced breast cancer, if you are overweight, if you currently have or ever had breast issues such as lumps, an abnormal mammogram (breast x-ray), or fibrocystic breast disease (swollen, tender breasts and/or breast lumps that are not cancer); high blood cholesterol or fats; diabetes; asthma; toxaemia (high blood pressure during pregnancy); heart attack, chest discomfort, seizures, migraine headaches, depression, gallbladder illness, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes), excessive weight gain, and fluid retention (bloating) during the menstrual cycle are just a few of the conditions that can affect a woman.
- If you are breastfeeding a baby or intend to become pregnant, avoid using oral contraceptives. Call your doctor right away if you get pregnant while using oral contraceptives.
- You may be pregnant if you stop having periods while using oral contraception. Call your doctor if you are taking a 91-tablet packet and you miss one period. If you follow the instructions for another type of packet and skip one period, you can still take your tablets. However, call your doctor and use another method of birth control until you have a pregnancy test if you have taken your pills as prescribed and you miss one period or if you have taken them as prescribed and you miss two. It may be challenging to determine whether you are pregnant if you are taking a 28-tablet packet that solely contains active pills because you won’t anticipate having periods frequently. If you develop pregnancy-related symptoms like nausea, vomiting, or sore breasts while using this kind of oral contraceptive, call your doctor and get a pregnancy test done. You should also get a pregnancy test done if you have any reason to believe you might be pregnant.
- Inform the surgeon or dentist that you are using oral contraceptives if you are having surgery, including dental surgery.
- It’s important for you to be aware that oral contraceptives may result in a patchy darkening of the skin, particularly on the face. Avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight while using oral contraceptives if you have previously experienced changes in your skin tone while pregnant or while using oral contraceptives. Put on sunscreen, sunglasses, and protective gear.
- In case you wear contact lenses, let your doctor and pharmacist know. Consult an eye doctor if you experience changes in your eyesight or your ability to wear contact lenses while using an oral contraceptive.
What special dietary instructions should I follow?
Keep eating normally unless your doctor instructs you otherwise.
What should I do if I forget a dose?
You might not be protected from pregnancy if you skip doses of your oral contraceptive. For seven to nine days, or until the conclusion of your period, you might need to utilise a backup birth control technique. If you miss one or more doses, there are specific instructions provided with every type of oral contraceptives. Read the manufacturer’s material for the patient that was included with your oral contraceptive product very carefully for directions. You should contact your doctor or pharmacist if you have any queries. As long as you don’t get your answers, keep taking your pills as prescribed and use a backup form of birth control.
What side effects can this medication cause?
Side effects from oral contraceptives are possible. If any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away, let your doctor know right once:
- Abdominal pain or bloating
- Gingivitis (swelling of the gum tissue)
- Greater or lesser appetite
- Gaining or losing weight
- Tan or black spots on the skin
- Hair growth in unexpected locations
- Between menstrual cycles, there may be bleeding or spotting.
- Modifications to menstrual flow
- Unpleasant or skipped periods
- Discomfort, enlargement, or discharge in the breast
- Vaginal edoema, redness, irritability, burning, or itchiness
- White vaginal spotting
Some adverse effects can be very harmful. Even though the following signs are unusual, you should call your doctor right once if you notice any of them:
- Terrible headache
- Violent vomiting
- Speech issues
- Faintness or dizziness
- An arm or leg that is weak or numb
- Chest heaviness or severe chest pain
- Spitting blood
- Breathing difficulty
- Leg ache
- Partial or total eyesight loss
- Dual perception
- Enlarged eyes
- Terrible tummy ache
- Skin or eyes turning yellow
- Reduced appetite
- Extreme exhaustion, sluggishness, or lack of energy
- Urine with a deep colour
- Stool with a light colour
- Hands, foot, ankles, or lower legs swelling
- Depression, particularly if you also experience difficulty sleeping, exhaustion, a decline in energy, or other mood changes
- Uncommon bleeding
- Unusually heavy or prolonged menstrual bleeding that lasts more than seven days straight
You may be more likely to develop liver tumours if you use oral contraceptives. While not cancerous, these tumours have the potential to rupture and result in significant internal bleeding. Oral contraceptives may potentially increase the risk of heart attack, stroke, major blood clot, breast or liver cancer, and other illnesses. The dangers of using oral contraceptives should be discussed with your doctor.
Studies suggest that women who use the drosperinone-containing oral contraceptives Beyaz, Gianvi, Loryna, Ocella, Safyral, Syeda, Yasmin, Yaz, and Zarah may be more susceptible to developing deep vein thrombosis than women who use contraceptives without drosperinone. Deep vein thrombosis is a serious or life-threatening condition in which blood clots form in the veins Other research, meanwhile, does not support this elevated risk. The danger of blood clots and the best oral contraceptive or alternative form of birth control for you should be discussed with your doctor before you start taking oral contraceptives.
Other adverse reactions to oral contraceptives are possible. If you experience any strange issues while taking this medicine, contact your doctor right away.
You or your doctor can submit a report to the Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting programme online or by phone if you have a serious side event (1-800-332-1088).
What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?
Keep this medication out of the reach of children and tightly wrapped in the packet it came in. Store it away from excessive heat and moisture at room temperature (not in the bathroom).
Unused prescriptions must be disposed of carefully to prevent pets, kids, and other people from ingesting them. You should not, however, dispose of this medication in the toilet. Instead, utilising a medicine take-back programme is the easiest approach to get rid of your medication. To find out about take-back programmes in your area, speak with your pharmacist or the garbage/recycling department in your city. If you do not have access to a take-back programme, see the FDA’s Safe Disposal of Medicines website at http://goo.gl/c4Rm4p for additional information.
As many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and are simple for young children to open, it is crucial to keep all medications out of sight and out of reach of children. Always lock safety caps and promptly stash medication up and away from young children where it is out of their sight and reach to prevent poisoning. http://www.upandaway.org
In case of emergency/overdose
Call the poison control hotline at 1-800-222-1222 in the event of an overdose. Additionally, information can be found online at https://www.poisonhelp.org/help. Call 911 right once if the person has collapsed, experienced a seizure, is having difficulty breathing, or cannot be roused.
Overdose symptoms could include:
- Uterine bleeding
What other information should I know?
Maintain all scheduled times with your physician and the lab. Every year, you should receive a thorough physical exam that includes a Pap test, pelvic and breast checks, and blood pressure readings. Examine your breasts as directed by your doctor, and report any lumps right once.
Inform the lab staff that you use oral contraceptives before any tests are performed there.
Your doctor might advise you to use a different method of birth control until you start menstruating regularly once more if you decide to stop taking oral contraceptives and get pregnant. If you have never given birth or had irregular, infrequent, or no menstrual periods prior to taking oral contraceptives, it could take a while for you to get pregnant after stopping the medication. However, after ceasing some oral contraceptives, it is possible to become pregnant within a few days. You should start utilising a different method of birth control as soon as you stop using oral contraceptives if you wish to stop using them but avoid getting pregnant. Any queries you may have can be discussed with your doctor.
The amount of folate in your body may decrease as a result of oral contraceptives. If you wish to get pregnant quickly after stopping oral contraceptives, talk to your doctor because folate is crucial for the growth of a healthy baby. Your physician might advise that you use an oral contraceptive that also contains a folate supplement or a folate supplement (Beyaz, Safyral).
No one else should take your medication. Any queries you may have regarding medication refills should be directed to your pharmacist.
You should keep a written record of every medication you take, including any over-the-counter (OTC) items, prescription drugs, and dietary supplements like vitamins and minerals. This list should be brought with you whenever you see a doctor or are admitted to the hospital. You should always have this information with you in case of emergencies.