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Afrezza (Generic Insulin Human Inhalation)

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The inhalation of insulin may impair lung function and result in bronchospasms (breathing difficulties). If you have asthma or a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, let your doctor know (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs and airways). If you have asthma or COPD, your doctor will advise you not to use insulin inhalation. Prior to beginning therapy, six months into therapy, and once a year while utilising insulin inhalation treatment, your doctor will conduct certain tests to determine how well your lungs are functioning. If you experience wheezing or breathing problems, let your doctor know right away.

Keep all of your appointments with your physician and the lab.

When you start receiving treatment with insulin inhalation and every time your prescription is renewed, your doctor or pharmacist will provide you the medication guide (patient information sheet) from the manufacturer. If you have any questions, carefully read the material and contact your doctor or pharmacist. To obtain the Medication Guide, go to the manufacturer’s website.

Discuss the dangers of utilising insulin inhalation with your doctor.

Why is this medication prescribed?

In order to treat type 1 diabetes, long-acting insulin is combined with insulin inhalation therapy (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar in the blood). It is also used to treat persons with type 2 diabetes who require insulin to control their condition (condition in which the body does not utilise insulin normally and cannot control the quantity of sugar in the blood). Diabetes ketoacidosis is not treated with inhaled insulin (a serious condition that may develop if high blood sugar is not treated). A synthetic, short-acting substitute for human insulin is insulin inhalation. Insulin inhalation functions by taking the place of the insulin that the body typically produces and by assisting in the movement of blood sugar into other bodily tissues where it is used as fuel. It also prevents the liver from generating additional sugar.

People with diabetes and high blood sugar over time may experience serious or fatal complications, such as heart disease, stroke, kidney issues, nerve damage, and vision issues. It may be possible to control your diabetes and enhance your health by using medication(s), making lifestyle changes (such as diet, exercise, and quitting smoking), and routinely checking your blood sugar. This treatment may also lower your risk of heart attack, stroke, kidney failure, nerve damage (resulting in numb, cold legs or feet and diminished sex capacity in both men and women), eye issues, such as changes in eyesight or blindness, or gum disease, which are all symptoms of diabetes. The optimal strategy to manage your diabetes will be discussed with you by your doctor and other healthcare professionals.

How should this medicine be used?

A special inhaler is required to inhale the powder form of insulin by mouth. Every meal begins with it in most cases. Ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any instructions on your prescription label that you are unsure about following. Follow the instructions for insulin inhalation exactly. Use it only as directed by your doctor, neither more nor less often.

Although it does not treat diabetes, insulin inhalation can manage it. Even if you feel good, keep using the insulin inhalation method. Without consulting your doctor, do not discontinue using insulin aerosol. Without first consulting your doctor, do not switch to a different type of insulin.

Read the printed instructions that are included with your insulin oral inhaler before using it for the first time. Check to see if you can identify every component of the inhaler by carefully studying the diagrams. To learn how to use it, ask your doctor or pharmacist. In his or her company, practise inhaler use.

Cartridges for single-use insulin inhalation powder are available. The inhaler that comes with your prescription should be the only device used with the cartridges. Without the inhaler that comes with your prescription, do not attempt to open, ingest, or inhale the cartridge’s contents.

Keep the inhaler level with the purple base at the bottom and the white mouthpiece on top after inserting a cartridge. You risk losing medication if the inhaler is held upside down, the mouthpiece is pointed downward, it is shaken, or it is dropped. If this occurs, you must swap out the cartridge for a fresh one before using the inhaler.

You should use the recommended number of insulin inhalation cartridges each day as directed by your doctor. Your doctor might need to change the dosages of your other diabetic drugs, such as long-acting insulin and oral diabetes medications, if you start using insulin inhalation. During your therapy, your doctor might also need to change the dosage of insulin you inhale. If you have any questions, see your doctor before according to these instructions. Without consulting your doctor, never alter the dosage of insulin inhalation or any other diabetes medicine.

Other uses for this medicine

Ask your doctor or pharmacist for more details if you believe this drug should be used for something else.

What special precautions should I follow?

Before using insulin inhalation,

  • If you have an allergy to any of the inactive chemicals in insulin inhalation, other drugs, or insulin (Apidra, Humulin, Lantus, Levemir, Novolog, among others), let your doctor and pharmacist know right away. For a list of the ingredients, consult the Medication Guide or speak with your pharmacist.
  • Inform your doctor and pharmacist about any vitamins, nutritional supplements, herbal items, and prescription and over-the-counter medicines you are now taking or intend to take. Any of the following should be mentioned: Albuterol (Proventil, Proventil HFA, and other brands); ACE inhibitors such as benazepril (Lotensin, in Lotrel); enalapril (Vasotec, in Vaseretic); fosinopril, lisinopril (Prinivil, Zestril, in Prinzide, in Zestoretic); quinapril (Accupril, in Quinaretic); and (Edarbi),Beta blockers like atenolol; candesartan (Atacand, in Atacand HCT), eprosartan (Teveten, in Teveten HCT), irbesartan (Avapro, in Avalide), losartan (Cozaar, in Hyzaar), olmesartan (Benicar, in Azor, in Benicar HCT, in Tribenzor), telmisartan ( (Tenormin, in Tenoretic), clonidine (Catapres, Catapres-TTS, Kapvay, among others), clozapine (Clozaril, Fazaclo ODT, Versacloz), danazol, disopyramide (Norpace, Norpace CR), diuretics, fenofibrate (Lipofen, TriCor, Triglide), and nadolol are some examples of the drugs that fall under this category, HIV protease inhibitors such as atazanavir (Reyataz), indinavir (Crixivan), lopinavir (in Kaletra), nelfinavir (Viracept), ritonavir (Norvir, in Kaletra, in Viekira Pak), and saquinavir (Invirase); hormone replacement treatment; isoniazid (Laniazid, in Rifamate, in Rifater); niacin, oral contraceptives (birth control pills), pioglitazone (Actos, in Actoplus Met, in Duetact, in Oseni), rosiglitazone (Avandia, in Avandamet, in Avandaryl), and selegiline (Eldepryl, Emsam, Zelapar) are examples of oral diabetes medications. Other examples include lithium (Lithobid), medications for nausea, mental illness, asthma, Other inhaled medications include pentamidine (NebuPent, Pentam), pentoxifylline (Pentoxil), pramlintide (Symlin), propoxyphene, and reserpine. Oral steroids like dexamethasone, methylprednisolone (Medrol), and prednisone (Rayos) are examples of these. Your doctor might need to adjust your medication doses or keep a close eye out for any negative side effects.
  • If you experience hypoglycemic symptoms, let your doctor know (low blood sugar). If you have this issue, your doctor probably won’t recommend that you use insulin inhalation.
  • Inform your doctor if you are infected, smoke, or have quit smoking within the last six months. Additionally, let your doctor know if you have ever experienced lung cancer, diabetes-related nerve damage, heart failure, kidney disease, or liver disease.
  • If you are breastfeeding a child or intend to become pregnant, let your doctor know. Call your doctor if you become pregnant while using insulin inhalation.
  • Inform the surgeon or dentist that you use insulin inhalation if you are having surgery, including dental surgery.
  • Find out from your doctor how frequently you should test your blood sugar. Be mindful that low blood sugar can impair your ability to do activities like driving, and ask your doctor if you should check your blood sugar before operating machinery or driving.
  • Alcohol may alter blood sugar levels. Inquire with your doctor about if drinking alcohol is safe for you to do while using insulin inhalation.
  • In the event that you become ill, put on or lose weight, suffer extraordinary stress, travel across time zones, or alter your exercise or activity regimen, consult your doctor for advice. Your dosing regimen and the amount of insulin you may need may alter as a result of these modifications.

What special dietary instructions should I follow?

Make sure to abide by all dietary and exercise advice given to you by your physician or nutritionist. It’s crucial to maintain a healthy diet and eat the same foods in the same amounts at around the same times every day. Your ability to control your blood sugar levels may suffer if you skip or delay meals, change the quantity or type of food you eat, or all three.

What should I do if I forget a dose?

Ask your doctor what to do if you forget to inhale a dose at the proper time when you first begin using insulin inhalation. To remember these instructions later, write them down.

What side effects can this medication cause?

Your blood sugar levels may alter as a result of this drug. You should be aware of the signs of low and high blood sugar as well as what to do if you experience these signs.

The inhalation of insulin may have negative effects. If any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away, let your doctor know right once:

  • Cough
  • Throat discomfort or annoyance
  • Tiredness
  • Diarrhea
  • Nausea
  • Headache
  • Scorching, uncomfortable urinating
  • Gaining weight

Some adverse effects can be very harmful. Call your doctor right away or seek emergency medical attention if you develop any of these signs or any of the ones detailed in the IMPORTANT WARNINGS section:

  • Itching or rashes
  • Hives
  • Rapid heart rate
  • Sweating
  • Having trouble swallowing
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Arms, hands, foot, ankles, or lower legs swelling
  • Unexpected weight gain
  • Extreme somnolence
  • Confusion
  • Dizziness

Inhaling insulin may make you more likely to get lung cancer. Discuss the dangers of utilising insulin inhalation with your doctor.

Inhaling insulin may result in additional adverse effects. If you experience any strange issues while taking this drug, call your doctor right away.

What should I know about storage and disposal of this medication?

Store this medication away from children’s reach in the refrigerator, in the bottle it came in, and tightly closed. Cartridges should be taken out of the fridge and left to sit at room temperature for 10 minutes before use. Medication that has not been opened can be kept at room temperature for up to ten days. When kept at room temperature and once opened, utilise the cartridge blister strips within three days. Use the inhaler for up to 15 days starting on the first day of use, after which time you should throw it away and get a new one. Keep the inhaler dry and never wash it.

Unused prescriptions must be disposed of carefully to prevent pets, kids, and other people from ingesting them. You should not, however, dispose of this medication in the toilet. Instead, utilising a medicine take-back programme is the easiest approach to get rid of your medication. To find out about take-back programmes in your area, speak with your pharmacist or the garbage/recycling department in your city. If you do not have access to a take-back programme, see the FDA’s Safe Disposal of Medicines website at for additional information.

As many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and are simple for young children to open, it is crucial to keep all medications out of sight and out of reach of children. Always lock safety caps and promptly stash medication up and away from young children where it is out of their sight and reach to prevent poisoning.

In case of emergency/overdose

Call the poison control hotline at 1-800-222-1222 in the event of an overdose. Additionally, information can be found online at Call 911 right once if the person has collapsed, experienced a seizure, is having difficulty breathing, or cannot be roused.

Inhalation of insulin A person may overdose if they inhale too much insulin or the appropriate dose while eating or exercising less than usual. Hypoglycemia may result from an overdose of insulin inhaled. Follow your doctor’s recommendations on what to do if you have hypoglycemia if you experience any of the symptoms of hypoglycemia. Other overdose signs include:

  • Consciousness loss
  • Seizures

What other information should I know?

You should routinely check your blood sugar and glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) to see how you react to inhaled insulin. Your doctor will also instruct you on how to measure your blood or urine sugar levels at home in order to monitor your response to insulin. Pay close attention to these directions.

Do not share your medication with anybody else. Any queries you may have regarding medication refills should be directed to your pharmacist.

You should keep a written record of every medication you take, including any over-the-counter (OTC) items, prescription drugs, and dietary supplements like vitamins and minerals. This list should be brought with you whenever you see a doctor or are admitted to the hospital. You should always have this information with you in case of emergencies.

Brand names

  • Afrezza®
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